Children from racial and ethnic minority and low socioeconomic backgrounds are not reaching their full potential in science. Okhee Lee explains how equitable learning opportunities can close this achievement gap
FOR ABOUT THREE DECADES, science educators in the US have called for “science for all” as the principle of equity and excellence in science education. However, the promise of science for all cannot be attained while achievement gaps persist among pupils of diverse racial, ethnic, cultural, linguistic, and socio-economic status (SES) backgrounds. There is a critical need to identify standards-based science instruction with strong evidence of effectiveness for diverse pupil groups. In this article I offer the concept of equitable learning opportunities as a framework to discuss ways to promote desired science outcomes for all pupils. I describe two theoretical perspectives, cognitive science and cultural congruence, that offer insights about equitable learning opportunities for pupils from non-mainstream backgrounds.
|What we know|
|● Provided with equitable learning opportunities, children from all backgrounds have the capacity to be successful in science.
● Two theoretical perspectives, cognitive science and cultural congruence, offer insights about equitable learning opportunities for pupils from non-mainstream backgrounds.
● Science teaching is more effective when it links the linguistic and cultural experiences of diverse pupil groups with scientific practices.
Equitable learning opportunities
Cognitive researchers’ changing views about children’s capabilities for learning science have been corroborated by classroom research. Even young children demonstrate sophisticated ideas about argument, evidence, and fair tests. Young children across cultures universally acquire substantial amounts of knowledge and fairly well-developed explanations of the natural world, while they also show areas of difficulties and misconceptions. This new understanding challenges the traditional view that children must reach a certain age or developmental stage to learn certain science concepts or skills. Our understanding has evolved from a deficit view that “children are not developmentally ready” to engage in scientific thinking to a view that “children are surprisingly competent”.
Similarly, science educators have shifted their views of racial or ethnic minority and low-SES pupils from a deficit view to a more equitable view that children from all backgrounds have the capacity to be successful in science. At the same time, research shows that there are areas of discontinuity or conflict between these pupils’ cultural norms and practices and the norms and practices of science.
Research in both cognitive science and pupil diversity in science education indicates that all pupils come to school with prior knowledge grounded in their home languages and cultures. Equitable learning opportunities occur when school science:
- values and respects the experiences that all pupils bring from their homes and communities;
- provides learning experiences that enable pupils to integrate such experiences with the standard knowledge of academic disciplines; and
- offers educational resources to support all pupils’ learning.
When provided with equitable learning opportunities, pupils from non-mainstream backgrounds can attain science outcomes comparable to their mainstream peers. These outcomes include attaining high levels of science achievement, adopting identities as science learners, demonstrating agency, and becoming bicultural and bilingual border-crossers by linking their own cultural and linguistic communities with the science learning community.
When we start from the evidence that high academic achievement in science is attainable by most children, we recognise that gaps in science outcomes among racial, ethnic, cultural, linguistic, or SES groups are a product of the different learning opportunities available to pupils. An important question for science educators is: What constitutes equitable learning opportunities? Among the growing number of research efforts to improve science outcomes of pupils from non-mainstream backgrounds, this article highlights two theoretical perspectives, cognitive science and cultural congruence.
A common premise underlies these two selected perspectives: science teaching is more effective when it links the linguistic and cultural experiences of diverse pupil groups with scientific practices. How this articulation is carried out, however, differs depending on the specific points of continuity or conflict between pupils’ cultural norms and practices and those of science. When pupils’ home cultures and the culture of science are continuous, teachers capitalize on pupils’ everyday thinking and knowledge as points to begin teaching. When these two cultures are discontinuous, teachers need to make the norms and practices of science explicit for pupils.
Cognitively based science teaching
An emerging body of literature based on cognitive science indicates that the ways of knowing and talking characteristic of racial or ethnic minority and low-SES pupils are generally continuous with the ways of knowing and talking characteristic of scientific communities. When teachers understand the complex dynamics at the points of contact between scientific practices and pupils’ everyday knowledge, they can identify and incorporate pupils’ cultural and linguistic experiences as intellectual resources for science learning. They can then provide opportunities for pupils to learn to use scientific language and participate in a science learning community.
Ann Rosebery and Beth Warren at the Chèche Konnen (which means “search for knowledge” in Haitian Creole) Center in the US have promoted collaborative scientific enquiry with racial or linguistic minority and low-SES K–8 (age 5–11) pupils to help them use language, think, and act as members of a science learning community. The pupils employ sense-making practices consistent with scientific practices: deep questions, vigorous argumentation, multiple perspectives, and innovative uses of everyday words to construct new meanings. As pupils engage in scientific enquiry, teachers can identify intersections between pupils’ everyday knowledge and scientific practices, and use these intersections as the basis for classroom teaching.
Culturally congruent science instruction
The cultural norms and practices of pupils from non-mainstream backgrounds are sometimes inconsistent with accepted scientific norms and practices. Cultural congruence occurs when teachers engage in culturally appropriate practices and utilise cultural artefacts, examples, analogies, and community resources familiar to pupils in classroom teaching. Furthermore, multicultural education literature argues that the school knowledge or the norms of classroom discourse are largely implicit and tacit, and thus not easily accessible to pupils who have not learned them at home. For pupils who are not from the mainstream culture, effective science teachers make the rules and norms of the culture of science explicit and enable pupils to cross cultural borders between their home cultures and the culture of science.
My framework of “instructional congruence” highlights the importance of developing congruence between pupils’ cultural and linguistic experiences and the specific demands of particular academic disciplines. Teaching benefits when the links between these two domains – the home and the academic – are articulated, especially when they contain potentially discontinuous elements. As pupils acquire the cultural competencies required for academic achievement, they may also require explicit teaching in science content if they are to build a knowledge repertoire that supports their academic success. Teachers move progressively from more explicit teaching to more pupil-exploratory strategies, gradually reducing assistance while encouraging pupils to take initiative and assume responsibility for their own learning.
Cognitive science and cultural congruence perspectives yield implications for science teaching for pupil diversity. From the cognitive science perspective, teachers need to identify points of contact where scientific practices are continuous with pupils’ everyday knowledge and build on such continuities to promote pupil learning. From the cultural congruence perspective, teachers need to make the norms and practices of science explicit for pupils, especially when such norms and practices are discontinuous with the norms and practices of their cultures. The evidence showing that gaps in science outcomes can be moderated when equitable learning opportunities are provided, offers hope that the goal of science for all can be achieved.
About the author
Okhee Lee is a professor in the School of Education, University of Miami, Florida. Her research areas include science education, language and culture, and teacher education. Author note This paper is based on work supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF Grant #ESI–0353331). Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the position, policy, or endorsement of the funding agency.
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Warren B, Ballenger C, Ogonowski M, Rosebery A, & Hudicourt-Barnes J (2001), Rethinking Diversity in Learning Science: The Logic of Everyday Language. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 38(5), 529–552.