Teaching and learning can be substantially enhanced through well-implemented technologies. Leslie Wilson describes the advantages of pupils having access to their own computers
ONE-TO-ONE computing emerged in the US to advance educational and economic goals while personalising teaching and learning. Originally defined as “each student having uninterrupted access to personal, portable technology, 24/7”, one-to-one programmes are growing at a rate of 4% a year and gaining momentum, worldwide, as a key to transforming education and better preparing young people to succeed in a global marketplace. Programmes range from small proofs of concept to state-wide deployments in the US such as the Maine Learning Technology Initiative (MLTI) and Freedom to Learn (FTL) in Michigan.
|What we know|
|● Teaching and learning can be substantially enhanced with well-implemented technology.
● Effective leadership, high quality CPD, and intricate planning and evaluation are key.
Central to the concept of “one-to-one” is creating education not technology initiatives. By transforming the learning environment from teacher-centred to learner-centred, these initiatives promote:
- Enhanced pupil engagement;
- Personalised and self-directed learning; and
- Improved access to technology for all.
Pupils use their computers for research, problem and project-based work, collaboration, email and coursework. They acquire essential 21st century skills in the process.
The authentic ‘shift’ to school reform
Technology alone is not sufficient to reform schools in ways that effectively prepare pupils for the future. If technology is used in traditional ways, the transformations will not occur. Ongoing, embedded professional development for teachers is an essential, non-negotiable component to ensure shifts are made in classroom teaching. “Meaningful” technology integration with curriculum and teaching provides the medium for transformation. The explicit goal is creating a learner-centric, constructivist approach where teachers and pupils are “producers” instead of passive users of knowledge.
One-to-One Institute: Fostering meaningful technology integration
The One-to-One Institute (OTO) was established by Michigan’s legislature to support organizations seeking these reforms. Its genesis was Michigan’s Freedom to Learn programme. High quality consultancies, CPD, research, and best practices are the foundation of the Institute’s work with over 200 countries, states, and districts. Drawing from the Institute’s research and applied work with districts and schools in the US, we have identified several characteristics of one-to-one programmes that are most successful in engendering transformations in line with the desired goals:
- Strategic planning for implementation, including monitoring and adjusting;
- Consistent communications with stakeholders;
- Continuous assessment and evaluation of the programme, and teacher and pupil behaviours;
- Sensitivity to operations and intersection with technology integration;
- Understanding, adaptation, and support of early adopters’ and advanced practitioners’ expertise; and
- Cultivation of a climate of resilience and exploration, encouraging risk-taking and experimentation.
OTO’s efforts focus on ensuring successful design, development and implementation in the following areas:
- Effective leadership is a major determinant of programme success. Developing a shared vision among stakeholders, communicating, and nurturing second-order change are crucial. Leaders must quickly access and analyse information to make decisions. The impact of administrators’ behaviours was demonstrated in the Texas Immersion Pilot (TIP) longitudinal evaluation by the Texas Center for Educational Research. Higher levels of administrator support for teachers’ technology immersion led to higher rates of teachers’ immersion.
- Sustainability (eg, school and local authority support).
- Financial resources (eg, infrastructure, technology updates, new pupil accommodations).
- Capacity building (eg, train the trainer, programme expansion, new staff accommodation).
- Programme evaluation (eg, formative and summative examination of quality, technology skills, and educational outcomes).
- Infrastructure (eg, bandwidth, home and school connections, wireless access points, server capacity).
- Stakeholder buy-in (eg, teachers, pupils, parents/carers, community leaders, businesses, etc).
- Job-embedded, ongoing professional development. In a longitudinal evaluation of Freedom to Learn, researchers Deborah Lowther and Steven Ross found high agreement by teachers and head teachers that CPD was effectively implemented and worthwhile. In this same study, FTL teachers implemented significantly more meaningful and pupil-centred lessons, and more seamlessly integrated technology into interactive, dynamic lessons than did teachers in traditional environments.
- Technology preparation and support (eg, imaging, troubleshooting protocol, onsite support, loaner devices, vendor expectations, etc).
- Communications (eg, ongoing discussions, feedback regarding initiative, focus on challenges, successes, partner involvement, etc).
- Policies (eg, acceptable use, procedures, orientations, home/school usage, lease vs. purchase, storage, power, charging, etc).
- Expectations management (eg, realistic prognostications around goals, define stakeholders’ roles and responsibilities, etc).
One-to-One meets Project RED
In 2009, OTO, The Hayes Connection, and Greaves Group launched Project RED (Revolutionizing EDucation). Funding sponsors, Intel, Apple, Qwest, eChalk, Pearson, and the RED authors believed that all indicators pointed to the US education system’s “perfect storm” on three fronts.
First was the demand for increased academic achievement. Although expectations have been escalating for some time, pupil performance has remained flat even though education spending nationally increased at twice the rate of inflation between 1980 and 2003. Second was recognition of the much faster pace of change outside education. Timely enactments of educational reforms are essential for cultivating an agile, successful, competitive population. Lastly, the economic meltdown of the past few years has shaped the US Department of Education’s theme for future school funding into one of “planning on doing more with less”.
Project RED is a multi-phase, multi-year study designed to show that technology can transform learning, as it has other segments of society. Findings are intended to influence key US national, state and district policy makers. One project objective is to identify and examine implementation strategies for schools seeking sustainable pupil achievement gains through technology integration. Because economy and education are interrelated, Project RED’s second objective is to research a historically neglected area – the potentially positive financial impact of technology in schools.
The research study is highly comprehensive and broad in scale, encompassing:
- 997 schools, representative of US schools as a whole;
- 11 education success measures;
- 136 independent variables in 22 categories;
- Comparison of findings to pupil:computer ratios; and
- Comprehensive demographic data correlated to results.
Analysis techniques include multiple regression, logistic regression analysis, principal component analysis and neural network analysis. Phase I of Project RED, conducted from June 2009 to June 2010, tested two hypotheses:
- Properly implemented education technology can substantially improve pupil achievement.
- Properly implemented education technology can be revenue-positive at the state level.
The research study used 11 education success measures to represent academic success and financial impact. The survey of head teachers explored the relationships between 22 independent variables and the success measures.
The two major hypotheses were confirmed by the Project RED survey results. Also revealed were previously unknown relationships between education technology and academic and financial performance. Specifically, key findings were
- One-to-one programmes work when well implemented.
- Schools are facing a technology implementation crisis. Few schools demonstrated a majority or all of the necessary elements for success.
- Education technology is an investment not an expense.
- Leadership and vision are essential to produce desired results.
- Technology-infused intervention classes (EAL, SEN, reading) were the strongest predictors of improved high-stakes test scores, drop-out rate reduction, and improved discipline.
- Collaboration and social media are significant to learning.
- Frequency of technology use is important to developing industry expertise.
The OTO and Project RED experiences and research findings show that teaching and learning can be substantially enhanced through well-implemented technologies. Key factors include effective leadership, high quality CPD, and intricate planning and evaluation. The measure of achieving successful transformations is how well each of the vital factors is addressed. The good news is that we know what to do to be successful. It is now time to do this important work in ways that improve the quality of teaching and learning, while preparing pupils for the challenges of the 21st century.
About the author
Leslie Wilson is President of the One-to-One Institute, a co-author of Project RED, an Education Policy/Program Fellow with the Institute for Educational Leadership, and former co-director Michigan’s 1:1 project, Freedom to Learn. She has extensively written and presented on 21st century teaching/learning/leadership, and also has 31 years previous experience working in schools.
Bebell D, & Kay R (2010), One to One Computing: A Summary of the Quantitative Results from the Berkshire Wireless Learning Initiative, The Journal of Technology, Learning and Assessment, 9(2).
Hayes TW, & Greaves J (2006–8), America’s Digital Schools.
Lowther DL, Strahl JD, Inan F, & Bates J (2007), Freedom to Learn Program Evaluation 2005–2006.
Franceschini L, Allen L, Lowther DL, & Strahl JD (2008), Freedom to Learn Program Evaluation 2007–2008.